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Artifacts > Amarna Letters

Amarna Letters

Background

EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet.The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at Amarna, the modern name for the ancient Egyptian capital of Akhetaten (el-Amarna), founded by pharaoh Akhenaten (1350s – 1330s BC) during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than that of ancient Egypt. The known tablets total 382: 24 tablets had been recovered since the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's landmark edition of the Amarna letters, Die El-Amarna-Tafel, published in two volumes (1907 and 1915).[1] The written correspondence spans a period of at most thirty years.The Amarna letters are of great significance for biblical studies as well as Semitic linguistics, since they shed light on the culture and language of the Canaanite peoples in pre-biblical times. The letters, though written in Akkadian, are heavily colored by the mother tongue of their writers, who spoke an early form of Canaanite, the language family which would later evolve into its daughter languages, Hebrew and Phoenician. These "Canaanisms" provide valuable insights into the proto-stage of those languages several centuries prior to their first actual manifestation.[2][3]Contents [hide] 1The letters1.1Letter summary2Amarna letters list2.1Chronology3Quotations and phrases3.1Bird in a Cage3.2"A brick may move.."3.3"For the lack of a cultivator.."3.4"Hale like the Sun..."3.5"I looked this way, and I looked..."3.6"May the Lady of Gubla.."3.7a pot held in pledge3.87 times and 7 times again3.9I fall ... 7 times and 7..."on the back and on the stomach"3.10when an ant is struck..4See also5Notes6References7External linksThe letters[edit]One of the Amarna Letters (from Alashiya)These letters, comprising cuneiform tablets written primarily in Akkadian – the regional language of diplomacy for this period – were first discovered around 1887 by local Egyptians who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city of Amarna, and sold them in the antiquities market. They had originally been stored in an ancient building that archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh. Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more. The first archaeologist who successfully recovered more tablets was Flinders Petrie, who in 1891 and 1892 uncovered 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat, then director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums.[4]The initial group of letters recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Germany, England, Egypt, France, Russia, and the United States. Either 202 or 203 tablets are at the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin; 99 are at the British Museum in London;[5] 49 or 50 are at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo; 7 at the Louvre in Paris; 3 at the Pushkin Museum in Moscow; and 1 in the collection of the Oriental Institute in Chicago.[6]The archive contains a wealth of information about cultures, kingdoms, events and individuals in a period from which few written sources survive. It includes correspondence from Akhenaten's reign, as well as his predecessor Amenhotep III's reign. The tablets consist of over 300 diplomatic letters; the remainder comprise miscellaneous literary and educational materials. These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, Canaan, and Alashiya (Cyprus) as well as relations with the Mitanni, and the Hittites. The letters have been important in establishing both the history and the chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king, Kadashman-Enlil I, anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC. They also contain the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews — due to the similarity of the words and their geographic location — remains debated. Other rulers involved in the letters include Tushratta of Mitanni, Lib'ayu of Shechem, Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, and the quarrelsome king, Rib-Hadda, of Byblos, who, in over 58 letters, continuously pleads for Egyptian military help. Specifically, the letters include requests for military help in the north against Hittite invaders, and in the south to fight against the Habiru.[7]Letter summary[edit]Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Mycenaean Greece (orange), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mitanni (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence.Amarna Letters are politically arranged in rough counterclockwise fashion:001–014 Babylonia015–016 Assyria017–030 Mitanni031–032 Arzawa033–040 Alashiya041–044 Hatti045–380+ Syria/Lebanon/CanaanAmarna Letters from Syria/Lebanon/Canaan are distributed roughly:045–067 Syria068–227 Lebanon (where 68–140 are from Gubla aka Byblos)227–380 Canaan (written mostly in the Canaano-Akkadian language).Amarna letters list[edit]Note: Many assignments are tentative; spellings vary widely. This is just a guide.EA#Letter author to recipientEA# 1Amenhotep III to Babylon king Kadashman-EnlilEA# 2Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3EA# 3Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3EA# 4Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3EA# 5Amenhotep 3 to Babylon king KadashmanEnlilEA# 6Babylon king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep 3EA# 7Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep IVEA# 8Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4EA# 9Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4EA# 10Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4EA# 11Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4EA# 12princess to her lordEA# 13BabylonEA# 14Amenhotep 4 to Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2EA# 15Assyria king Ashur-Uballit I to Amenhotep 4EA# 16Assyria king Ashur-Uballit 1 to Amenhotep 4EA# 17Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 18Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 19Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 20Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 21Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 22Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 23Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 24Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3EA# 25Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4EA# 26Mitanni king Tushratta to widow TiyEA# 27Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4EA# 28Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4EA# 29Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4EA# 30Mitanni king to Palestine kingsEA# 31Amenhotep 3 to Arzawa king TarhundarabaEA# 32Arzawa king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep 3(?)EA# 33Alashiya king to pharaoh #1EA# 34Alashiya king to pharaoh #2EA# 35Alashiya king to pharaoh #3EA# 36Alashiya king to pharaoh #4EA# 37Alashiya king to pharaoh #5EA# 38Alashiya king to pharaoh #6EA# 39Alashiya king to pharaoh #7EA# 40Alashiya minister to Egypt ministerEA# 41Hittite king Suppiluliuma to Huri[a]EA# 42Hittite king to pharaohEA# 43Hittite king to pharaohEA# 44Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaohEA# 45Ugarit king [M]istu ... to pharaohEA# 46Ugarit king ... to kingEA# 47Ugarit king ... to kingEA# 48Ugarit queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queenEA# 49Ugarit king Niqm-Adda II to pharaohEA# 50woman to her mistress B[i]...EA#051Nuhasse king Addunirari to pharaohEA#052Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #1EA#053Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #2EA#054Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #3EA#055Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #4EA#056... to kingEA#057...EA#058EA#058[Qat]ihutisupa to king(?) obverseEA#059Tunip peoples to pharaohEA#060Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #1EA#061Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #2EA#062Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to PahanateEA#063Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #3EA#064Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #4EA#065Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #5EA#066--- to kingEA#067--- to kingEA#068Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1EA#069Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt officialEA#070Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #2EA#071Gubal king Rib-Addi to Haia(?)EA#072Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #3EA#073Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #1EA#074Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #4EA#075Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #5EA#076Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #6EA#077Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #2EA#078Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #7EA#079Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #8EA#080Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #9EA#081Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #10EA#082Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #3EA#083Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #11EA#084Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #12EA#085Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #13EA#086Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #4EA#087Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #5EA#088Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #14EA#089Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #15EA#090Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #16EA#091Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #17EA#092Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #18EA#093Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #6EA#094Gubla man to pharaohEA#095Gubal king Rib-Addi to chiefEA#096chief to Rib-AddiEA#097Iapah-Addi to Sumu-HadiEA#098Iapah-Addi to IanhamuEA#099pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)EA#100Irqata peoplesEA#1001Tagi to Lab-AyaEA#101Gubla man to Egypt officialEA#102Gubal king Rib-Addi to [Ianha]m[u]EA#103Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #19EA#104Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #20EA#105Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #21EA#106Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #22EA#107Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #23EA#108Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #24EA#109Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #25EA#110Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #26EA#111Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #27EA#112Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #28EA#113Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt officialEA#114Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #29EA#115Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #30EA#116Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #31EA#117Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #32EA#118Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #33EA#119Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #34EA#120Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #35EA#121Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #36EA#122Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #37EA#123Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #38EA#124Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #39EA#125Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #40EA#126Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #41EA#127Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #42EA#128Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #43EA#129Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #44EA#129Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #45EA#130Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #46EA#131Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #47EA#132Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #48EA#133Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #49EA#134Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #50EA#135Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #51EA#136Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #52EA#137Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #53EA#138Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #54EA#139Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1EA#140Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2EA#141Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #1EA#142Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #2EA#143Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #3EA#144Zidon king Zimriddi to pharaohEA#145[Z]imrid[a] to an officialEA#146Tyre king Abi-Milki to pharaoh #1EA#147Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2EA#148Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3EA#149Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4EA#150Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5EA#151Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6EA#152Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7EA#153Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8EA#154Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9EA#155Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10EA#156Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #1EA#157Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2EA#158Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #1EA#159Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3EA#160Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4EA#161Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5EA#162pharaoh to Amurra princeEA#163pharaoh to ...EA#164Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #2EA#165Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6EA#166Amurru king Aziri to HaiEA#167Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)EA#168Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7EA#169Amurru son of Aziri to an Egypt officialEA#170Ba-Aluia & BattiiluEA#171Amurru son of Aziri to pharaohEA#172---EA#173... to kingEA#174Bieri of HasabuEA#175Ildaja of Hazi to kingEA#176Abdi-RisaEA#177Guddasuna king JamiutaEA#178Hibija to a chiefEA#179... to kingEA#180... to kingEA#181... to kingEA#182Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #1EA#183Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2EA#184Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3EA#185Hazi king Majarzana to kingEA#186Majarzana of Hazi to king #2EA#187Satija of ... to kingEA#188... to kingEA#189Qadesh mayor EtakkamaEA#190pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)EA#191Ruhiza king Arzawaija to kingEA#192Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2EA#193Dijate to kingEA#194Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #1EA#195Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #2EA#196Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #3EA#197Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #4EA#198Ara[ha]ttu of Kumidi to kingEA#199... the kingEA#200servant to kingEA#2001SealantsEA#2002SealantsEA#201Artemanja of Ziribasani to kingEA#202Amajase to kingEA#203Abdi-Milki of SashimiEA#204prince of Qanu to kingEA#205Gubbu prince to kingEA#206prince of Naziba to kingEA#207Ipteh ... to kingEA#208... to Egypt official or kingEA#209Zisamimi to kingEA#210Zisami[mi] to Amenhotep IVEA#2100Carchemish king to Ugarit king AsukwariEA#211Zitrijara to king #1EA#2110Ewiri-Shar to PlsyEA#212Zitrijara to king #2EA#213Zitrijara to king #3EA#214... to kingEA#215Baiawa to king #1EA#216Baiawa to king #2EA#217A[h]... to kingEA#218... to kingEA#219... to kingEA#220Nukurtuwa of (?) [Z]unu to kingEA#221Wiktazu to king #1EA#222pharaoh to IntarudaEA#222Wik[tazu] to king #2EA#223En[g]u[t]a to kingEA#224Sum-Add[a] to kingEA#225Sum-Adda of Samhuna to kingEA#226Sipturi_ to kingEA#227Hazor kingEA#228Hazor king Abdi-TirsiEA#229Abdi-na-... to kingEA#230Iama to kingEA#231... to kingEA#232Acco king Zurata to pharaohEA#233Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1EA#234Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2EA#235Zitatna/(Zatatna) to kingEA#236... to kingEA#237Bajadi to kingEA#238BajadiEA#239BaduzanaEA#240... to kingEA#241Rusmania to kingEA#242Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1EA#243Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2EA#244Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3EA#245Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4EA#246Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5EA#247Megiddo king Biridija or JasdataEA#248Ja[sd]ata to kingEA#248Megiddo king Biridija to pharaohEA#249EA#249Addu-Ur-sag to kingEA#250Addu-Ur-sag to kingEA#2500ShechemEA#251... to Egypt officialEA#252Labaja to kingEA#253Labaja to kingEA#254Labaja to kingEA#255Mut-Balu or Mut-Bahlum to kingEA#256Mut-Balu to IanhamuEA#257Balu-Mihir to king #1EA#258Balu-Mihir to king #2EA#259Balu-Mihir to king #3EA#260Balu-Mihir to king #4EA#261Dasru to king #1EA#262Dasru to king #2EA#263... to lordEA#264Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #1EA#265Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #2EA#266Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #3EA#267Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1EA#268Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2EA#269Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3EA#270Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4EA#271Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5EA#272Sum. .. to kingEA#273Ba-Lat-Nese to kingEA#274Ba-Lat-Nese to king #2EA#275Iahazibada to king #1EA#276Iahazibada to king #2EA#277Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1EA#278Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2EA#279Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3EA#280Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3EA#281Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4EA#282Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5EA#283Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6EA#284Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7EA#285Jerusalem king Abdi-Hiba to pharaohEA#286Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaohEA#287Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaohEA#288Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaohEA#289Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaohEA#290Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaohEA#290Qiltu king Suwardata to kingEA#291... to ...EA#292Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1EA#293Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2EA#294Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3EA#295EA#295Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4EA#296Gaza king IahtiriEA#297Gezer mayor Iapah[i] to pharaoh #1EA#298Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2EA#299Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3EA#300Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4EA#301Subandu to king #1EA#302Subandu to king #2EA#303Subandu to king #3EA#304Subandu to king #4EA#305Subandu to king #5EA#306Subandu to king #6EA#307... to kingEA#308... to kingEA#309... to kingEA#310... to kingEA#311... to kingEA#312... to kingEA#313... to kingEA#314Jursa king Pu-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1EA#315Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2EA#316Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaohEA#317Dagantakala to king #1EA#318Dagantakala to king #2EA#319A[h]tirumna king Zurasar to kingEA#320Asqalon king Yidia to pharaoh #1EA#321Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2EA#322Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3EA#323Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4EA#324Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5EA#325Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6EA#326Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7EA#327... the kingEA#328Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaohEA#329Lakis king Zimridi to pharaohEA#330Lakis mayor Sipti-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1EA#331Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2EA#332Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3EA#333Ebi to a princeEA#334---dih of Zuhra [-?] to kingEA#335--- [of Z]uhr[u] to kingEA#336Hiziri to king #1EA#337Hiziri to king #2EA#338Zi. .. to kingEA#339... to kingEA#340...EA#341...EA#342...EA#356myth of Adapa and the South WindEA#357myth the Ereskigal and NergalEA#358myth fragmentsEA#359myth Epic of King of BattleEA#360...EA#361...EA#364Aiab to kingEA#365Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaohEA#367pharaoh to Endaruta of AkshapaEA#xxxAmenhotep III to MilkiliH#3100Tell el-HesiP#3200Pella prince Mut-Balu to YanhamuP#3210Lion Woman to kingT#3002Amenhotep to Taanach king RewassaT#3005Amenhotep to Taanach king RewassaT#3006Amenhotep to Taanach king RewassaU#4001Ugarit king NiqmadduChronology[edit]William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows:Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution. Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, and these provide only a broad framework within which many and often quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna letters are possible and have been defended. ...The Amarna archive, it is now generally agreed, spans at most about thirty years, perhaps only fifteen or so.[8]From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 to 1351 BC (or 1391 to 1353 BC), possibly as early as this king's 30th regnal year; the latest date any of these letters were written is the desertion of the city of Amarna, commonly believed to have happened in the second year of the reign of Tutankhamun later in the same century in 1332 BC. Moran notes that some scholars believe one tablet, EA 16, may have been addressed to Tutankhamun's successor Ay.[9] However, this speculation appears improbable because the Amarna archives were closed by Year 2 of Tutankhamun, when this king transferred Egypt's capital from Amarna to Thebes.Quotations and phrases[edit]A small number of the Amarna letters are in the class of poetry. An example is EA 153, (EA is for 'el Amarna'). EA 153, entitled: "Ships on hold", from Abimilku of Tyre is a short, 20-line letter. Lines 6-8, and 9-11 are parallel phrases, each ending with "...before the troops of the king, my lord."-('before', then line 8, line 11). Both sentences are identical, and repetitive, with only the subject statement changing.The entire corpus of Amarna letters has many standard phrases. It also has some phrases, and quotations used only once. Some are parables: (EA 252: "...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"....)Bird in a Cage[edit]A bird in a cage (Trap)—Rib-Hadda subcorpus of letters. (Rib-Hadda was trapped in Gubla-(Byblos), unable to move freely.)"A brick may move.."[edit]A brick may move from under its partner, still I will not move from under the feet of the king, my lord.—Used in letters EA 266, 292, and 296. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru."For the lack of a cultivator.."[edit]"For the lack of a cultivator, my field is like a woman without a husband."—Rib-Hadda letter EA 75"Hale like the Sun..."[edit]"And know that the King-(pharaoh) is Hale like the Sun in the Sky. For his troops and his chariots in multitude all goes very well...."—See: Endaruta, for the Short Form; See: Milkilu, for a Long Form. Also found in EA 99: entitled: "From the Pharaoh to a vassal". (with addressee damaged)"I looked this way, and I looked..."[edit]"I looked this way, and I looked that way, and there was no light. Then I looked towards the king, my lord, and there was light."—EA 266 by Tagi (Ginti mayor); EA 296 by Yahtiru."May the Lady of Gubla.."[edit]"May the Lady of Gubla grant power to the king, my lord."—varieties of the phrase in the Rib-Hadda lettersa pot held in pledge[edit]a pot held in pledge—The Pot of a Debt. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru.7 times and 7 times again[edit]7 times and 7 times—Over and over again7 times plus 7—EA 189, See: "Etakkama of Kadesh"(title)-(Qidšu)I fall ... 7 times and 7..."on the back and on the stomach"[edit]I fall, at the feet, ... 7 times and 7 times, "on the back and on the stomach"—EA 316, by Pu-Ba'lu, and used in numerous letters to pharaoh. See: Commissioner: Tahmašši.when an ant is struck..[edit]"...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"—A phrase used by Labayu defending his actions of overtaking cities, EA 252. Title: "Sparing one's enemies".See also[edit]Ancient Egypt portalAncient Near East portalAbdi-HebaLabayaAshur-uballit IMutbaalSuwardataSee the town of "Lakiša", Lachish, for "find" of one tablet, EA 333.Amarna letters–localities and their rulersList of artifacts significant to the BibleMari TabletsNew Chronology (Rohl)Foreign relations of Egypt during the Amarna periodNotes[edit]Jump up ^ Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. xiv. ISBN 0-8018-4251-4.Jump up ^ F.M.T. de Liagre Böhl, Die Sprache der Amarnabriefe, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kanaanismen ('The language of the Amarna letters, with special attention to the Canaanisms'), Leipzig 1909.Jump up ^ Eva von Dassow, 'Canaanite in Cuneiform', Journal of the American Oriental Society 124/4 (2004): 641–674. (pdf)Jump up ^ Moran, p.xvJump up ^ British Museum CollectionJump up ^ Moran, pp.xiii-xivJump up ^ El-Amarna Tablets, article at West Semitic Research Project, website of University of Southern California accessed 2/8/15.Jump up ^ Moran, p.xxxivJump up ^ Moran, p.xxxv, n.123References[edit]Smith, Janet (2011). Dust or dew: Immortality in the Ancient Near East and in Psalm 49. Eugene, OR, USA: Wipf and Stock. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-60899-661-2.Goren, Y., Finkelstein, I. & Na'aman, N., Inscribed in Clay - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Tel Aviv: Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 2004. ISBN 965-266-020-5Knudtzon, Jørgen Alexander (1915). Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. 1. Leipzig.Knudtzon, Jørgen Alexander (1915). Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. 2. Leipzig.External links[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amarna letters.High-resolution images, from the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin.Mineralogical and Chemical Study of the Amarna Tablets - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets – University of Tel Aviv web pageAll 6 views on 1--Sample letter(Mesopotamian)Wikisource-logo.svg "The Tell el-Amarna Tablets". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.Electronic version of the Amarna tablets, Akkadian in English transliteration.Text of some letters, archive.org

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