Cultures > Mitanni

Mitanni

Background

Mitanni (/mΙͺˈtΓ¦ni/; Hittite cuneiform π’†³π’Œ·π’ˆͺπ’‹«π’€­π’‰Œ KUR URUMi-ta-an-ni; Mittani π’ˆͺπ’€‰π’‹«π’‰Œ Mi-it-ta-ni), also called Hanigalbat or Hani-Rabbat (Hanikalbat, Khanigalbat, cuneiform π’„©π’‰Œπ’ƒ²π’ αΈͺa-ni-gal-bat, αΈͺa-ni-rab-bat) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia.

Currently there are two hypotheses regarding how Mitanni was formed: that Mitanni was already a powerful kingdom at the end of the 17th century or in the first half of the 16th century BC, and its beginnings are from before the time of Thutmose I, so dated to the time of the Hittite sovereigns αΈͺattuΕ‘ili I and Mursili I,[1] when the middle chronology is applied;[2] or that Mitanni came to be due to a political vacuum in Syria, which had been created first through the destruction of the kingdom of Yamhad by the Hittites and then through the inability of Hatti to maintain control of the region during the period following the death of Mursili I.

If the second hypothesis is considered, Mitanni could have come to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon occurred in 1595 BC (in middle chronology),[3] and a series of ineffectual Assyrian kings created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. On the other hand, Eva von Dassow, in her most recent (2022) essay, considers Mitanni was firstly known as Hanigalbat, around 1600 BC, at Babylonia and Assyria, in texts of the late Old Babylonian period.

While the Mitanni kings and other members of royalty bore names of Indo-Aryan origin,[5] and invoked Indo-Aryan deities attested in the Rigveda, they probably used the language of the local people, which was at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian. Their sphere of influence is shown in Hurrian place names, personal names and the spread through Syria and the Levant of a distinct pottery type.

Washukanni

Hittites

Hittites - Hittite Kingdom

Hittite Kingdom Under Suppiluliuma I (1350–1322 BC) & Mursili II (1321–1295 BC)

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