Cultures > Elam

Elam

Background

Elam was an ancient civilization based just east of Mesopotamia. Its capital city was Susa and the civilization grew greatly during the Copper Age. This would put the civilization of Elam in the same historical time period as Sumer and the Akkadian Empire

Origins

The origins of Elam are also tied intricately with the development of Susiana and are centered around the area of the Iranian Plateau that lies just east of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The earliest forms of civilization in the area are the disputed city-states of Jiroft and Zabol which some archaeologists show significant similarities to later Elamite culture. There have also been Elamite language carvings going back to 7,000 BC.

Elam was actually just a large collection of city-states that eventually merged together much like neighboring Sumer. It is believed that the city of Awan is older than Anshan and may have had the same territory except in an older era. Not much is known about this early period of Elamite history. This served as the core of Elamite territory and the city of Susiana appears to have been annexed later. There were also many smaller settlements found throughout the region such as Jiroft and Zabol as previously mentioned along with Warakshe and Sialk.

By 4,000 BC the city of Susa had been founded at the watershed of the Karun River and served as the real core of Elamite cultural development in the later centuries. Susa and the associated Susiana culture exerted tremendous cultural influence on the territory and development of Elam in the coming centuries.

Proto-Elamite Period

See Proto-Elamite Period

Old Elamite Period

The Old Elamite Period (2700–1600 BC) is marked by the conquering of Elam by Sumer and the establishment of the first Awan Dynasty by king Enmebaragesi of Kish (c. 2650 BC). After his rule there were three more successive dynasties that lasted throughout the history of Sumer and into the history of the Akkadian Empire (c 2300 BC). Elam was also conquered by Sargon the Great

Elam - Akkadian Empire Territories Map

Akkadian Empire Territories Map

During the Proto-Elamite Period the culture of Elam was primarily based on the Iranian plateau and centered around the city of Anshan. The political power of Elam shifted around 2000 BC to the new capital at Susa that was based in the Khuzestan lowlands.

Middle Period

Under the conquest by the Assyrian Empire, Elam would become utterly destroyed. Tukulti-Ninurta I was one of the most literate of the Assyrian kings and he greatly documented his victory over the Kassite Dynasty of Babylonia and also of his conquest over the Elamites. Tukulti-Ninurta was also successful in beating the Hittites at the Battle of Nihriya in 1245 BC which was the turning point for the collapse of the Hittite civilization.

It appears under his reign that the civilization of Elam along with the rest of the others were assimilated into the Neo-Assyrian Empire that would rule for around three hundred years from 900 BC to 600 BC. Rule over Elam continued through the Great Assyrian Kings of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal.

Neo-Elamite Period

See Neo-Elamite Period

Achaemenid Empire

See Achaemenid Empire

Sabalico Logo
Sabali Mail Logo
Domain Search Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website On Logo
Code Editor Logo
ASCII Table Logo
HTML Symbols Logo
Emoji Symbols Logo
Encode File Logo
Generator Password Logo
QR Code Generator Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Online Sign Logo
Dictionary Online Logo
Counter Word Logo
Text Convert Logo
Lorem Ipsum Generator Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Resize Image Logo
Image Compress Logo
Image Color Logo
Image Crop Logo
Combine Images Logo
Color Picker Logo
Color Convert Logo
CSS Gradient Logo
To-Do List Logo
Calendar Free Logo
Generator Meme Logo
Word Spinner Logo
Phone Country Logo
Sabalytics Logo
Senty Logo
World Map Logo
SEO Guide Logo
Keyword Tool Logo
What is my IP Logo
My Device Logo
My Browser Logo
My Location Logo
Time Zone Logo
Day Map Logo
My Weather Logo
My Galaxy Logo
The Moon Logo
Periodic Table Logo
rStatistics Logo
Unit Convert Logo
Data Convert Logo
Coordinate Converter Logo
Temperature Convert Logo
2020 Election Logo
Currency Convert Logo
Free Calculator Logo
Finance Calculator Logo
Loan Calculator Logo
Calculator Mortgage Logo
Stock Calculator Logo
Bond Calculator Logo
Tax Calculator Logo
Tip Calculator Logo
Gas Mileage Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo
History of Humanity - Mafia History Logo