Chronologies > Middle Chronology

Middle Chronology

Assyria-Babylonia Decoration


The middle chronology is one chronology of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1792–1750 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1595 BC.[1]The chronology is based on a 56/64-year astronomical calculation determined by evidence from the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa and the Enuma anu enlil tablet 63. Conventional textbooks tend to use the middle chronology, but early dendrochronological and astronomical evidence presented various problems for it.[2] This led to increased adoption of the short chronologies by some.[3][4] However, more recent studies have shown that the Middle Chronology is most likely.[5]The problem raised by using short chronologies is that a century or more needs to be added to some period of the second millennium BC to accommodate it, and no-one so far has been able to make a suggestion as to which period to add it to. This has left second millennium BC dates appearing artificially short and resulted in distortion and loss of accuracy for older dates as a sacrifice to provide greater accuracy for earlier ones.[6]Various scholars have favoured different chronologies in recent years. Peter Huber has favoured the long chronology, relying on astronomical data available from Enuma anu enlil tablets 20 and 21 linking lunar eclipses to historical events in the Ur III period, along with the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, Old Babylonian month lengths.[7]Numerous elements of Huber's theories have been criticized by a consortium of scholars led by Hermann Gasche and Vahe Gurzadyan, who have suggested an ultra-low chronology based on archaeological evidence and especially on more complete use of astronomical evidence. Gasche and Gurzadyan argue that only the eight-year cycle from the Venus tablet is entirely reliable and of practical use[3] (see update in[4]). The latest studies largely rely on more evidences.[4][8] A study from 2001 published high-resolution radiocarbon dates from Turkey supporting dates for the 2nd millennium BC that are very close to those proposed by the middle chronology.[9] Further support for the Middle Chronology (or a "Low-Middle" eight years lower) was provided by a 2016 study combining dendrochronology and radiocarbon.[10]A table of historical events by their different chronologies is shown below.Historical eventUltra-long/Ultra-high chronologyLong/High chronologyMiddle chronologyShort/Low chronologyUltra-short/Ultra-low chronologyAkkadian Empire ? ?2334–2154 BC ?2200–2018 BCThird Dynasty of Ur ?2161–2054 BC2112–2004 BC2048–1940 BC2018–1911 BCIsin Dynasty ?2017–1793 BC ?1922–1698 BCFirst Dynasty of Babylon ?1950–1651 BC1894–1595 BC1830–1531 BC1798–1499 BCReign of Hammurabi1933–1890 BC[11]1848–1806 BC1792–1750 BC1728–1686 BC1696–1654 BCReign of Ammisaduqa ?1702–1682 BC1646–1626 BC1582–1562 BC1550–1530 BCFall of Babylon1736 BC[12]1651 BC1595 BC1531 BC1499 BC


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