Chronologies > Short Chronology

Short Chronology

Assyria-Babylonia Decoration

Background

The Short Chronology is one of the major timelines used to date the reigns of kings and major events in Mesopotamia during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age which fixes the date of the Sack of Babylon to 1531 BCE and the reign of Hammurabi to between 1728 BCE and 1686 BCE.

The absolute 2nd millennium BC dates resulting from this decision have very little support in academia, particularly after more recent research. The middle chronology (reign of Hammurabi 1792–1750 BC) is still commonly encountered in literature and the most recent work has essentially disproved the short chronology.[1] For much of the period in question, middle chronology dates can be calculated by adding 64 years to the corresponding short chronology date (e.g. 1728 BC in short chronology corresponds to 1792 in middle chronology).After the so-called "dark age" between the fall of Babylon and the rise of the Kassite dynasty in Babylonia, absolute dating becomes less uncertain.[2] While exact dates are still not agreed upon, the 64-year middle/short chronology dichotomy no longer applies from the beginning of the Third Babylon Dynasty onward.Estimation of absolute dates becomes possible for the 2nd half of the 3rd millennium BC. For the first half of the 3rd millennium, only very rough chronological matching of archaeological dates with written records is possible.

Ebla

The city-states of Ebla and Mari (in modern Syria) competed for power at this time. Eventually, under Irkab-Damu, Ebla defeated Mari for control of the region just in time to face the rise of Uruk and Akkad. After years of back and forth, Ebla was destroyed by the Akkadian Empire. Pottery seals of the Egyptian pharaoh Pepi I have been found in the wreckage of the city. [3]RulerProposed reignNotesIgrish-Halamcirca 2300 BCIrkab-DamuContemporary of Iblul-Il of MariAr-Ennum or Reshi-EnnumIbrium or EbriumContemporary of Tudiya of Assyria (treaty)Ibbi-Sipish or Ibbi-ZikirSon of IbriumDubuhu-AdaEbla destroyed by Naram-Sin of Akkad or Sargon of AkkadSumer[edit]Further information: Sumerian king listThird Dynasty of UrukFurther information: UrukLugal-zage-si of Umma rules from Uruk after defeating Lagash, eventually falling to the emerging Akkadian Empire.[4]RulerProposed reignNotesLugal-zage-si2295–2271 BCDefeats Urukagina of Lagash and is in turn defeated by Sargon of Akkad

Akkadian Empire

Dynasty of AkkadFurther information: AkkadSince Akkad (or Agade), the capital of the Akkadian Empire, has not yet been found, available chronological data comes from outlying locations like Ebla, Tell Brak, Nippur, Susa and Tell Leilan. Clearly, the expansion of Akkad came under the rules of Sargon and Naram-sin. The last king of the empire, Shar-kali-sharri managed to mostly hold things together but upon his death, the empire fragmented. Finally, the city of Akkad itself was destroyed by the Guti.[5][6][7]RulerProposed reignNotesSargon2270–2215 BCRimush2214–2206 BCSon of SargonMan-ishtishu2205–2191 BCSon of SargonNaram-sin2190–2154 BCGrandson of SargonShar-kali-sharri2153–2129 BCSon of Naram-sinIrgigiNanumImiIluluDudu2125–2104 BCShu-Durul2104–2083 BCCity of Akkad falls to the Guti

Gutium

First appearing in the area during the reign of Sargon of Akkad, the Guti became a regional power after the decline of the Akkadian Empire following Shar-kali-sharri. The dynasty ends with the defeat of the last king, Tirigan, by Uruk.Only a handful of the Guti kings are attested to by inscriptions, aside from the Sumerian king list.[8]RulerProposed reignNotesErridupizir2141–2138 BCRoyal inscription at NippurImta or Nibia (There is no kings for 3 or 5 years)2138–2135 BCInkishush2135–2129 BCFirst Gutian ruler on the Sumerian king listSarlagab2129–2126 BCShulme2126–2120 BCElulmesh or Silulumesh2120–2114 BCInimabakesh2114–2109 BCIgeshaush or Igeaus2109–2103 BCYarlagab or Yarlaqaba2103–2088 BCIbate2088–2085 BCYarlangab or Yarla2085–2082 BCKurum2082–2081 BCApilkin or Habil-kin or Apil-kin2081–2078 BCLa-erabum2078–2076 BCMace head inscriptionIrarum2076–2074 BCIbranum2074–2073 BCHablum2073–2071 BCPuzur-Suen2071–2064 BCSon of HablumYarlaganda2064–2057 BCFoundation inscription at UmmaSi-um or Si-u2057–2050 BCFoundation inscription at UmmaTirigan2050–2050 BCContemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk

2nd Dynasty of Lagash

Following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire after Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad under pressure from the invading Gutians, Lagash gradually regained prominence. As a client state to the Gutian Kings, Lagash was extremely successful, peaking under the rule of Gudea. After the last Gutian king, Tirigan, was defeated, by Utu-hengal, Lagash came under the control of Ur under Ur-Namma.[9] Note that there is some indication that the order of the last two rulers of Lagash should be reversed. [10]RulerProposed reignNotesLugalushumgalca. 2140ruled under Gutian kingsPuzer-MamaUr-UtuUr-MamaLu-BabaLugulaKaku or Kakugended 2093Ur-Bau or Ur-baba2093–2080 BCGudea2080–2060 BCSon-in-law of Ur-babaUr-Ningirsu2060–2055 BCSon of GudeaPirigme or Ugme2055–2053 BCGrandson of GudeaUr-gar2053–2049 BCNammahani2049–2046 BCGrandson of Kaku, defeated by Ur-Namma

5th Dynasty of Uruk

Uniting various Sumerian city-states, Utu-hengal frees the region from the Gutians. Note that the Sumerian king list records a preceding 4th Dynasty of Uruk which is as yet unattested. [11]RulerProposed reignNotesUtu-hengal2055–2048 BCAppoints Ur-Namma as governor of UrThird Dynasty of Ur (Sumerian Renaissance)

3rd Dynasty of Ur

Main article: Third Dynasty of UrIn an apparently peaceful transition, Ur came to power after the end of the reign of Utu-hengal of Uruk, with the first king, Ur-Namma, solidifying his power with the defeat of Lagash. By the dynasty's end with the destruction of Ur by Elamites and Shimashki, the dynasty included little more than the area around Ur.[12] [13] [14]RulerProposed reignNotesUr-Namma or Ur-Engur2047–2030 BCDefeated Nammahani of Lagash; Contemporary of Utu-hengal of UrukShulgi2029–1982 BCPossible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC[15]Amar-Suena1981–1973 BCSon of ShulgiShu-Suen1972–1964 BCIbbi-Suen1963–1940 BCSon of Shu-Suen

Middle Bronze Age

The Old Assyrian / Old Babylonian period (20th to 15th centuries)First Dynasty of IsinFurther information: IsinAfter Ishbi-Erra of Isin breaks away from the declining Third Dynasty of Ur under Ibbi-Suen, Isin reaches its peak under Ishme-Dagan. Weakened by attacks from the upstart Babylonians, Isin eventually falls to its rival Larsa under Rim-Sin I.[16][17]RulerProposed reignNotesIshbi-Erra1953–1921 BCContemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur IIIŠu-ilišu1920–1911 BCSon of Ishbi-ErraIddin-Dagan1910–1890 BCSon of Shu-ilishuIshme-Dagan1889–1871 BCSon of Iddin-DaganLipit-Eshtar1870–1860 BCContemporary of Gungunum of LarsaUr-Ninurta1859–1832 BCContemporary of Abisare of LarsaBur-Suen1831–1811 BCSon of Ur-NinurtaLipit-Enlil1810–1806 BCSon of Bur-SuenErra-Imittī or Ura-imitti1805–1799 BCEnlil-bāni1798–1775 BCContemporary of Sumu-la-El of BabylonZambīia1774–1772 BCContemporary of Sin-Iqisham of LarsaIter-piša1771–1768 BCUr-du-kuga1767–1764 BCSuen-magir1763–1753 BCDamiq-ilishu1752–1730 BCSon of Suen-magir

Kings of Larsa

The chronology of the Kingdom of Larsa is based mainly on the Larsa King List (Larsa Dynastic List), the Larsa Date Lists, and a number of royal inscriptions and commercial records. The Larsa King List was compiled in Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi, conqueror of Larsa. It is suspected that the list elevated the first several Amorite Isinite governors of Larsa to kingship so as to legitimize the rule of the Amorite Babylonians over Larsa. After a period of Babylonian occupation, Larsa briefly breaks free in a revolt ended by the death of the last king, Rim-Sin II.[18] [19] [20]RulerProposed reignNotesNaplanum1961–1940 BCContemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur IIIEmisum1940–1912 BCSamium1912–1877 BCZabaia1877–1868 BCSon of Samium, First royal inscriptionGungunum1868–1841 BCGained independence from Lipit-Eshtar of IsinAbisare1841–1830 BCSumuel1830–1801 BCNur-Adad1801–1785 BCContemporary of Sumu-la-El of BabylonSin-Iddinam1785–1778 BCSon of Nur-AdadSin-Eribam1778–1776 BCSin-Iqisham1776–1771 BCContemporary of Zambiya of Isin, Son of Sin-EribamSilli-Adad1771–1770 BCWarad-Sin1770–1758 BCPossible co-regency with Kudur-Mabuk his fatherRim-Sin I1758–1699 BCContemporary of Irdanene of Uruk, Defeated by Hammurabi of Babylon, Brother of Warad-SinHammurabi of Babylon1699–1686 BCOfficial Babylonian ruleSamsu-iluna of Babylon1686–1678 BCOfficial Babylonian ruleRim-Sin II1678–1674 BCKilled in revolt against Babylon

1st Babylonian Dynasty

Following the fall of the Ur III Dynasty, the resultant power vacuum was contested by Isin and Larsa, with Babylon and Assyria later joining the fray. In the second half of the reign of Hammurabi, Babylon became the preeminent power, a position it largely maintained until the sack by Mursili I in 1531 BC. Note that there are no contemporary accounts of the sack of Babylon. It is inferred from much later documents.[21][22]RulerProposed reignNotesSumu-abum or Su-abu1830–1817 BCContemporary of Ilushuma of AssyriaSumu-la-El1817–1781 BCContemporary of Erishum I of AssyriaSabium or Sabum1781–1767 BCSon of Sumu-la-ElApil-Sin1767–1749 BCSon of SabiumSin-muballit1748–1729 BCSon of Apil-SinHammurabi1728–1686 BCContemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari, Siwe-palar-huppak of Elam and Shamshi-Adad ISamsu-iluna1686–1648 BCSon of HammurabiAbi-eshuh or Abieshu1648–1620 BCSon of Samsu-ilunaAmmi-ditana1620–1583 BCSon of Abi-eshuhAmmi-saduqa or Ammisaduqa1582–1562 BCVenus tablet of AmmisaduqaSamsu-Ditana1562–1531 BCSack of Babylon

1st Sealand Dynasty

1st Sealand Dynasty (2nd Dynasty of Babylon)When the names of Sealand Dynasty kings were found on cuneiform records like the Babylonian Kings Lists, Chronicle 20, Chronicle of the Early Kings, and the Synchronistic King List, it was assumed that the dynasty slotted in between the First Dynasty of Babylon and the Kassites.[23] Later discoveries changed this to the assumption that the dynasty ran entirely in parallel to the others. Modern scholarship has made it clear that the Sealand Dynasty did in fact control Babylon and the remnants of its empire for a time after its sack by the Hittites in 1531 BC.[24][25]RulerProposed reignNotesIlumael or Ilum-ma-ilīcirca 1700 BCContemporary of Samsu-iluna and Abi-eshuh of the First Dynasty of BabylonItti-ili-nībīDamqi-ilišu IIIškibalŠuššiGulkišarmDIŠ+U-EN (reading unknown)PešgaldaramešSon of GulkisharAyadaragalamaSon (=descendant) of GulkisharAkurduanaMelamkurkurraEa-gâmilca. 1460 BCContemporary of Ulamburiash of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon

Hittite Old Kingdom

The absolute chronology of the Hittite Old Kingdom hinges entirely on the date of the sack of Babylon. In 1531 BC, for reasons that are still extremely unclear, Mursili I marched roughly 500 miles from Aleppo to Babylon, sacked it, and then promptly returned home, never to return. Other than that event, all the available chronological synchronisms are local to the region in and near Anatolia.RulerProposed reignNotesPusarrumaLabarna IHattusili I or Labarna II1586–1556 BCGrandfather of Mursili IMursili I1556–1526 BCSacked Babylon in reign of Samsu-Ditana of BabylonHantili I1526–1496 BCZidanta I1496–1486 BCAmmuna1486–1466 BCSon of Hantili IHuzziya I1466–1461 BCSon of AmmunaLate Bronze Age[edit]Further information: Bronze Age collapseThe Middle Assyrian period (14th to 12th centuries)

3rd Dynasty of Babylon

Third Babylon Dynasty (Kassite)Main article: KassitesThe Kassites first appeared during the reign of Samsu-iluna of the First Babylonian Dynasty and after being defeated by Babylon, moved to control the city-state of Mari. Some undetermined amount of time after the fall of Babylon, the Kassites established a new Babylonian dynasty. The Babylonian king list identifies 36 kings reigning 576 years, however, only about 18 names are legible. A few more were identified by inscriptions. There is some confusion in the middle part of the dynasty because of conflicts between the Synchronistic Chronicle and Chronicle P. The later kings are well attested from kudurru steles. Relative dating is from sychronisms with Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. The dynasty ends with the defeat of Enlil-nadin-ahi by Elam.[26][27][28][29]RulerProposed reignNotesAgum II or Agum-KakrimeBurnaburiash ITreaty with Puzur-Ashur III of AssyriaKashtiliash IIIUlamburiashConquers the first Sealand dynastyAgum IIIKaraindashTreaty with Ashur-bel-nisheshu of AssyriaKadashman-harbe ICampaign against the SutûKurigalzu IFounder of Dur-Kurigalzu and contemporary of Thutmose IVKadashman-Enlil I1374–1360 BCContemporary of Amenophis III of the Egyptian Amarna lettersBurnaburiash II1359–1333 BCContemporary of Akhenaten and Ashur-uballit IKara-hardash1333 BCGrandson of Ashur-uballit I of AssyriaNazi-Bugash or Shuzigash1333 BCUsurper "son of a nobody"Kurigalzu II1332–1308 BCSon of Burnaburiash II, Fought Battle of Sugagi with Enlil-nirari of AssyriaNazi-Maruttash1307–1282 BCContemporary of Adad-nirari I of AssyriaKadashman-Turgu1281–1264 BCContemporary of Hattusili III of the HittitesKadashman-Enlil II1263–1255 BCContemporary of Hattusili III of the HittitesKudur-Enlil1254–1246 BCTime of Nippur renaissanceShagarakti-Shuriash1245–1233 BC"Non-son of Kudur-Enlil" according to Tukulti-Ninurta I of AssyriaKashtiliashu IV1232–1225 BCContemporary of Tukulti-Ninurta I of AssyriaEnlil-nadin-shumi1224 BCAssyria installed vassal kingKadashman-Harbe II1223 BCAssyria installed vassal kingAdad-shuma-iddina1222–1217 BCAssyria installed vassal kingAdad-shuma-usur1216–1187 BCContemporary of Ashur-nirari III of AssyriaMeli-Shipak II1186–1172 BCCorrespondence with Ninurta-apal-Ekur confirming foundation of Near East chronologyMarduk-apla-iddina I1171–1159 BCZababa-shuma-iddin1158 BCDefeated by Shutruk-Nahhunte of ElamEnlil-nadin-ahi1157–1155 BCDefeated by Kutir-Nahhunte of Elam

Mitanni

Perhaps because the capital of Mitanni, Washukanni, has not yet been found, there are no available king lists, year lists, or royal inscriptions. Fortunately, a fair amount of diplomatic, Hittite, and Assyrian sources exist to firm up the chronology. Having become powerful under Shaushtatar, Mitanni eventually falls into the traditional trap of dynasties, the contest for succession. Tushratta and Artatama II both claim the kingship and the Hittites and Assyrians take advantage of the situation. After that, Mitanni was no longer a factor in the region.[30][31]RulerProposed reignNotesKirtaca. 1500 BCParshatatar or ParrattarnaSon of KirtaShaushtatarContemporary of Idrimi of Alalakh, Sacks AshurArtatama ITreaty with Pharaoh Thutmose IV of Egypt, Contemporary of Pharaoh Amenhotep II of EgyptShuttarna IIDaughter marries Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt in his year 10ArtashumaraSon of Shutarna II, brief reignTushrattaca. 1350 BCContemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites and Pharaohs Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV of Egypt, Amarna lettersArtatama IITreaty with Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites, ruled same time as TushrattaShuttarna IIIContemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the HittitesShattiwazaMitanni becomes vassal of the Hittite EmpireShattuara IMittani becomes vassal of Assyria under Adad-nirari IWasashattaSon of Shattuara I

Middle Assyrian Kingdom

Long a minor player, after the defeat of its neighbor Mitanni by the Hittites, Assyria rises to the ranks of a major power under Ashur-uballit I. The period is marked by conflict with rivals Babylon and the Hittites as well as diplomatic exchanges with Egypt, in the Amarna letters. Note that after the excavation, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, of various Neo-Assyrian documents, such as the Assyrian king list, scholars assumed that the chronological data for earlier Assyrian periods could be taken as accurate history. That view has changed over the years and the early Assyrian chronology is being re-assessed. Since there is yet no consensus, the traditional order and regnal lengths will be followed.[32][33][34]RulerProposed reignNotesEriba-Adad I1380–1353 BCAshur-uballit I1353–1318 BCContemporary of Burnaburiash II of Babylon and Suppiluliuma I of the HittitesEnlil-nirari1317–1308 BCFought Battle of Sugagi with Kurigalzu II of Babylon, Son of Ashur-uballit IArik-den-ili1307–1296 BCAdad-nirari I1295–1264 BCContemporary of Shattuara I and Wasashatta of MitanniShalmaneser I1263–1234 BCSon of Adad-nirari ITukulti-Ninurta I1233–1197 BCContemporary of Kashtiliashu IV of BabylonAshur-nadin-apli1196–1194 BCSon of Tukulti-Ninurta IAshur-nirari III1193–1188 BCContemporary of Adad-shuma-usur of Babylon and Son of Ashur-nadin-apliEnlil-kudurri-usur1187–1183 BCSon of Tukulti-Ninurta INinurta-apal-Ekur1182–1180 BCMiddle-Assyrian periodFurther information: AssyriaAfter the Middle Assyrian Kingdom there is an uncertain period in Assyrian history. The current cornerstone of chronology for this time is the Assyrian King List which, unfortuneately, conflicts with other records such as the Synchronised King List and the Babylonian King List. In any event, the rulers of Assyria in this time were all fairly weak, except for Tiglath-Pileser I. Note too that this chronology is based on assumed synchronisms with Egypt in the previous period.RulerReignNotesAshur-Dan I1179–1133 BCSon of Ninurta-apal-EkurNinurta-tukulti-Ashur1133 BCMutakkil-nusku1133 BCAshur-resh-ishi I1133–1115 BCTiglath-Pileser I1115–1076 BCAsharid-apal-Ekur1076–1074 BCAshur-bel-kala1074–1056 BCEriba-Adad II1056–1054 BCShamshi-Adad IV1054–1050 BCAshur-nasir-pal I1050–1031 BCShalmaneser II1031–1019 BCAshur-nirari IV1019–1013 BCAshur-rabi II1013–972 BCAshur-resh-ishi II972–967 BCTiglath-Pileser II967–935 BCAshur-dan II935–912 BC

Hittite New Kingdom

Beginning under his father, Suppiluliuma I brought the Hittites from obscurity into an empire that lasts for almost 150 years. The Hittite New Kingdom reaches its height after the defeat of Mitanni, an event which ironically leads to the rise of Assyria. The dynasty ends with the destruction of Hattusa by parties undetermined but which may have included the Sea People and the Kaskians.[35][36][37][38]RulerProposed reignNotesTudhaliya III1360–1344 BCSon of Tudhaliya IISuppiluliuma I1344–1322 BCSon of Tudhaliya III, Contemporary of Tushratta of MitanniArnuwanda II1322–1321 BCSon of Suppiluliuma IMursili II1321–1295 BCSon of Suppiluliuma I; Mursili's eclipseMuwatalli II1295–1272 BCSon of Mursili II, Battle of Kadesh in year 5 of Ramses II of Egypt,Mursili III or Urhi-Teshub1272–1267 BCSon of Muwatalli IIHattusili III1267–1237 BCSon of Mursili II, Treaty in year 21 of Ramses II of Egypt, Contemporary of Shalmaneser I of Assyria & Kadashman-Turgu of BabylonTudhaliya IV1237–1209 BCSon of Hattusili III, Battle of NihriyaArnuwanda III1209–1207 BCSon of Tudhaliya IVSuppiluliuma II1207–1178 BCSon of Tudhaliya IV, Fall of Hattusa

Ugarit

A client state of Mitanni and later the Hittites, Ugarit was nonetheless a significant player in the region. While regnal lengths and an absolute chronology for Ugarit are not yet available, the known order of kings and some firm synchronisms make it reasonably placeable in time. The fall of Ugarit has been narrowed down to the range from the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah to the 8th year of Pharaoh Rameses III of Egypt. This is roughly the same time that Hattusa is destroyed.[39][40]RulerProposed reignNotesAmmittamru Ica. 1350 BCNiqmaddu IIContemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the HittitesArhalbaNiqmepaTreaty with Mursili II of the Hittites, Son of Niqmadu II,Ammittamru IIContemporary of Bentisina of Amurru, Son of NiqmepaIbiranuNiqmaddu IIIAmmurapica. 1200 BCContemporary of Chancellor Bay of Egypt, Ugarit is destroyed

Iron Age

The Early Iron Age (12th to 7th centuries BC). While not subject to the long versus short dating issue, chronology in the Ancient Near East is not on a firm footing until the rise of the Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian rulers in their respective regions. The dates, regnal lengths, and even the names of a number of rulers from that interim period are still unknown. To make matters worse, the few surviving records, such as the Synchronistic Chronicle, give conflicting data.[41]

Second Dynasty of Isin

Further information: Kings of BabylonAfter the fall of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon to Elam, power in the region, and control of Babylon, swung to the city-state of Isin. Assyria at this time was extremely weak, except during the reign of the powerful Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser I. Other polities in the area had yet to recover from the Bronze Age collapse.[42][43]RulerReignNotesMarduk-kabit-aḫḫēšu1157–1140 BCItti-Marduk-balāṭu1139–1132 BCNinurta-nādin-šumi1131–1126 BCContemporary of Ashur-resh-ishi I of AssyriaNebuchadnezzar I1125–1104 BCOrig. Nabu-kudurri-usur, Contemporary of Ashur-resh-ishi IEnlil-nadin-apli1103–1100 BCSon of Nebuchadnezzar IMarduk-nadin-ahhe1099–1082 BCContemporary of Tiglath-Pileser I of AssyriaMarduk-šāpik-zēri1081–1069 BCContemporary of Ashur-bel-kala of AssyriaAdad-apla-iddina1168–1147 BCContemporary of Ashur-bel-kalaMarduk-aḫḫē-erība1046 BCMarduk-zer-X1045–1034 BCNabû-šuma-libūr1033–1026 BC

Babylonia

Dynasties V to IX of Babylon (post-Kassite):RulerReignNotesSimbar-šipak1025–1008 BCDynasty V – Second Sealand DynastyEa-mukin-zēri1008 BCKaššu-nādin-aḫi1008–1004 BCEulmaš-šākin-šumi1004–987 BCDynasty VI – Bῑt-Bazi DynastyNinurta-kudurrῑ-uṣur I987–985 BCŠirikti-šuqamuna985 BCMâr-bîti-apla-uṣur985–979 BCDynasty VII – Dynasty of "Elam"Nabû-mukin-apli979–943 BCDynasty VIII – Dynasty of ENinurta-kudurri-usur II943 BCDynasty IXMar-biti-ahhe-iddina943–920 BCŠamaš-mudammiqcirca 900 BCNabû-šuma-ukin INabu-apla-iddinaMarduk-zakir-šumi IMarduk-balassu-iqbiBaba-aha-iddina5 unnamed kingscirca 800 BCNinurta-apla-XMarduk-bel-zeriMarduk-apla-usurEriba-Marduk769–761 BCNabu-šuma-iškun761–748 BCNabonassar (Nabu-nasir)748–734 BCContemporary of Tiglath-Pileser IIINabu-nadin-zeri734–732 BCNabu-šuma-ukin II732 BC

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Assyrian empire rises to become the dominant power in the ancient Near East for over two centuries. This occurs despite the efforts of various other strong groups that existed in this period, including Babylon, Urartu, Damascus, Elam, and Egypt.[44][45][46]

Babylonia

BabylonFurther information: Kings of BabylonDynasties X of Babylon (Assyrian):Babylon was under the direct control of Neo-Assyrian rulers or their appointed governors for much of this period.RulerReignNotesNabu-mukin-zeri of Assyria732–729 BCTiglath-Pileser III of Assyria729–727 BCShalmaneser V of Assyria727–722 BCMarduk-apla-iddina II722–710 BCSargon II of Assyria710–705 BCSennacherib of Assyria705–703 BCMarduk-zakir-shumi II703 BCMarduk-apla-iddina II703 BCBel-ibni703–700 BCAssyrian appointed governorAshur-nadin-shumi700–694 BCSon of Sennacherib of AssyriaNergal-ushezib694–693 BCMushezib-Marduk693–689 BCSennacherib of Assyria689–681 BCEsarhaddon of Assyria681–669 BCShamash-shum-ukin668–648 BCSon of Esarhaddon of AssyriaKandalanu648–627 BCSin-shumu-lishir626 BCSinsharishkunca. 627–620 BCSon of Assurbanipal of AssyriaClassical AntiquityFor times after Assurbanipal (died 627 BC), see:Median Empire (c.615–549 BC), see List of Kings of the MedesNeo-Babylonian Empire (626–539 BC)Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)The Hellenistic period begins with the conquests of Alexander the Great in 330 BC.

Chronologies

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