People > Ashur-rabi II

Ashur-rabi II

Background

Aššur-rabi II, inscribed maš-šur-GAL-bi, "(the god) Aššur is great,"[1] was king of Assyria 1012–972 BC. Despite his lengthy reign (41 years), one of the longest of the Assyrian monarchs, his tenure seems to have been an unhappy one judging by the scanty and laconic references to his setbacks from later sources.Biography[edit]He was a younger son of the earlier Assyrian monarch, Aššurnaṣirpal I. He succeeded his nephew Aššur-nerari IV's brief six year rule, and if this succession was like earlier usurpations by uncles of their nephews, it would have been a violent affair. The Assyrian Kinglist[i 1][i 2][i 3] records his accession and genealogy but provides no further information. His construction of the Bit-nathi, part of the temple of Ištar in Nineveh, was recalled in a dedicatory clone of Aššur-nāṣir-apli II (883–859 BC) commemorating his own repair work.[i 4]Some Assyrian settlements on the Middle Euphrates were lost to the Arameans as they were able to cross the river and establish a network of autonomous but interrelated settlements that began to encroach on the Assyrian heartland.[2] Šulmānu-ašarēdu III recalled the loss of Ana-Aššur-utēr-aṣbat (Pitru, possibly Tell Aushariye) and Mutkinu, two towns close to Til Barsip, which had originally been taken and colonized by Tukultī-apil-Ešarra I around a hundred years earlier, in one of his inscriptions: "At the time of Aššur-rabi (II), king of Assyria, the king of Aram (Syria) took [two cities] by force—I restored these cities. I installed the Assyrians in their midst."[i 5] The king of Aram (šar4 KUR-a-ru-mu) is unlikely to have been Hadadezer of Zobah, in southern Syria, but a northern Aram in or near Ḫanigalbat.[3] His authority continued to stretch as far west as the Ḫārbūr river as recorded on the cylinder[i 6] of Bel-ereš, a šangû or governor of Šadikanni,[4] somewhat contradicting the picture of Assyrian retreat and decline painted elsewhere.[5]His era must have stretched from the reigns of his Babylonian contemporaries, Simbar-Šipak (1025–1008 BC) to Nabû-mukin-apli (978–943 BC), although there is no extant contemporary proof of contact which might help fix this chronology more precisely. The Synchronistic Kinglist[i 7] gives his contemporary as Širikti-šuqamuna, a king of Babylonia who reigned just 3 months ca. 985 BC. Severe distress and famine was recorded under Kaššu-nādin-aḫi (ca 1006–1004 BC), the midpoint in Aššur-rabi's reign, and this possibly points to the underlying cause of the Aramean migration.[6]He was followed on the throne by his son, the equally obscure Aššur-reši-išši II, who ruled for five years.Inscriptions[edit]Jump up ^ Khorsabad Kinglist, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828, DS 32-54), iv 9.Jump up ^ Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), iv 23.Jump up ^ SDAS Kinglist, IM 60484, iv 9.Jump up ^ RIMA 2 A.0.101.58:3' and copy RIMA 2 A.0.I01.65:3'.Jump up ^ RIMA 3 A.0.102.2 ii 37.Jump up ^ RIMA 2 A.0.96.2001 clay cylinder.Jump up ^ Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), iii 7.References[edit]Jump up ^ A. Fuchs (1998). "Aššur-rabi II". In K. Radner. The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 209.Jump up ^ Martin Sicker (2000). The Pre-Islamic Middle East. Praeger. p. 48.Jump up ^ Wayne T. Pitard (1987). Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times until Its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B.C.E. Eisenbrauns. p. 91.Jump up ^ Stephen W. Holloway (1997). "Assyria and Babylonia in the Tenth Century". In Lowell K. Handy. The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium. Brill. p. 2009.Jump up ^ Hartmut Kühne, ed. (2010). "Production and Consumption at Dūr-Katlimmu, A Survey of the Evidence". Dūr-Katlimmu 2008 and Beyond. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 69.Jump up ^ J. Neumann, S. Parpola (Jul 1987). "Climatic Change and the Eleventh-Tenth-Century Eclipse of Assyria and Babylonia". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 46 (3): 180. doi:10.1086/373244.Preceded byAshur-nirari IVKing of Assyria1013–972 BCSucceeded byAshur-resh-ishi II

Assyrian King List

King NameYears of RuleKingdom
Eriba-Adad I1380–1353 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit I1353–1318 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-nirari1317–1308 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Arik-den-ili1307–1296 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari I1295–1264 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser I1263–1234 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta I1233–1197 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nadin-apli1196–1194 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari III1193–1188 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-kudurri-usur1187–1183 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-apal-Ekur1182–1180 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan I1179-1133 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur1333 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Mutakkil-nusku1333 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi I1133-1115 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser I1115-1076 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Asharid-apal-Ekur1076-1074 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-bel-kala1074-1056 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Eriba-Adad II1056-1054 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-Adad IV1054-1050 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal I1050-1031 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser II1031-1019 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari IV1019-1013 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-rabi II1013-972 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi II972-967 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser II967-935 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan II935-912 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari II912-891 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta II891-884 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal II884-859 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser III859-824 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-adad V824-811 BCEMiddle Assyrian Empire
Shammu-ramat811-808 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari III811-783 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmeneser IV783-773 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-dan III773-755 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari V755-745 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser III745-727 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser V727-722 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Sargon II722–705 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Sennacherib705–681 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Esarhaddon681–669 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Ashurbanipal669–631 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-etli-ilani631-627 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shumu-lishir626 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shar-ishkun627-612 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit II612-608 BCENeo-Assyrian Empire

Sources

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